Vitamin Chart

Welcome to our vitamin and mineral chart.  We hope this information will benefit you and encourage you to make healthy and beneficial choices

in your diet. Please note that fat soluble vitamins can be stored in the body and need not be consumed daily. While it is
difficult to “overdose” on them from ordinary sources, consuming mega doses of fat soluble( A,K,E, and D) vitamins, especially A and
D, can lead to a dangerous buildup in the body.
The other vitamins are water soluble and readily excreted by the body. We at Emedvisits
recommend
you get your vitamins and health related groceries from our trusted
websites in our products page.
Vitamins and Minerals Chart                      

 Abbreviations: IU=International Units; mg=milligrams; mcg=micrograms

Vitamin/
Minerals
Sources  
Indication  
Deficiency  
  Claim

Vitamin A

Retinol

Men: 3 000 IU

Women: 2 700 IU

 

Liver, fortified
Milk, animal liver and fish live oil (Retinol form – see below for Carotene sources.)             

Essential for eyes, skin and the proper function of the immune system. Helps . maintain hair, bones and teeth, and epithelial cells.                       

Deficiency: Night blindness; reduced hair growth in children; loss of appetite; dry, rough skin; lowered resistance to infection;
dry eyes.

Overdose: Headaches; blurred vision; fatigue; diarrhea; irregular periods; joint and bone pain; dry, cracked skin;rashes;loss of hair; vomiting, liver damage/ enlargement.

Signs of deficiency also include asthma, resp infxns, digestive ulcers, warts, dry
hair, dandruff, important in epithelial tissues.                

                             

       

Beta Carotene

(Pro-Vitamin A)

(See Vitamin A)

Carrots, Squash, apricot, cantaloupe, Broccoli, Green Leafy Vegetables

Antioxidant. Converted
to Vitamin A in the body. (See Vitamin A)

The antioxidant properties of this nutrient may be a factor in reducing the risk of
certain forms of cancer.

Vitamin D

Men: 100 IU

Women: 100 IU

Egg Yolk, Milk, Exposure to sun enables body to make its own Vitamin D. Fish
oil, fatty salt water fish.

Helps build and maintain teeth and bones. Enhances calcium, and phosphorus absorption. Enhances immunity,
helps prevent breast and colon cancer.

Deficiency: Rickets in children; bone softening in adults; osteoporosis. Cavities, muscle cramps,
joint pains, joint pains

Overdose: Calcium deposits in organs; fragile bones; renal and cardiovascular damage.

 May need if : on
low fat diet, vegan diet, or high phosphorus diet (meat and soft drinks), steroid hormone decrease vit d absorption.

Vitamin E

Men:
9-10 mg

Women: 6-7 mg

Corn or Cottonseed Oil, Butter, Brown Rice,  Vegetable oils such as Corn, eggs, kelp, Cottonseed, Nuts, Wheat
Germ.

Antioxidant. Helps form red blood cells, muscles and other tissues. Preserves fatty acids, vitamin E may help prevent CAD and
cancer.

Deficiency: Rare, seen primarily in premature or low birth weight babies or children who do not absorb fat properly. Causes
nerve abnormalities.

Overdose: Unknown.

The antioxidant properties of this nutrient may be a factor in reducing the risk of certain
forms of cancer. Do not take iron( esp ferrous sulfate) and vit E at the same time

Vitamin K

None established.

Estimated at 0.03 mcg/kg

Green
Vegetables, cabbage, brussel sprouts, Liver, kelp; most of it  made by intestinal bacteria.

Needed for normal blood clotting.
Also needed for bone formation and repair

Deficiency:

Defective blood coagulation.

Overdose: Jaundice in infants.

 Antibiotics kill
the friendly bacteria that synthesize vit K

Water Soluble Vitamins are not stored in the body and should therefore be consumed
daily.

Thiamine

Vitamin B1, thiamine

Men: 0.8 – 1.3 mg

Women: 0.8 mg

Sunflower Seeds, Pork, whole and enriched Grains, dried Beans, egg
yolks, fish, poultry .

Necessary for carbohydrate metabolism and muscle coordination. Promotes proper nerve and brain function.

Deficiency:

Anxiety;
hysteria; depression;paranoia; muscle cramps; loss of apetite; in extreme cases beriberi (mostly in alcoholics). Learning disability,
numbness and tingling of feet and hands, clumsiness, inc sensitivity to noise and pain

Overdose:

Unknown, although excess of one B vitamin
may cause deficiency of others.

 May be needed needed if excess sugar intake, or poor diet, stress.

Riboflavin

Vitamin B2

Men: 1.3
- 1.6 mg

Women: 1.1 mg

Liver, Milk, Spinach, enriched Noodles, Mushrooms, poultry, meat, and yogurt.

Needed for metabolism of all foods
and the release of energy to cells. Essential to the functioning of Vitamin B6 and Niacin.

Deficiency: Cracks and sores around the
mouth and nose; visual problems, burning eyelids, magenta colored tongue.

Overdose: See Vitamin B1.

 Needed if diet high in processed
foods, stress, pregnancy.

May be used with B6 in carpal tunnel syndrome.

Niacin

Vitamin B3

Men: 16-23 mg

Women: 14-16 mg

Niacin is converted
to niacinamide (it does not lower cholesterol) in the body.

Mushrooms, Bran, Tuna, Chicken, Beef, Peanuts, enriched Grains, brewer’s
yeast, cheese, carrots, dates, eggs, fish, milk.

Needed in many enzymes that convert food to energy. Helps maintain a healthy digestive
tract and nervous system. In very large doses,
lower cholesterol- LDL (large doses should only be taken under the advice of a physician).
Component of coenzyme involved in glycolysis and tissue respiration.

Deficiency:

In extreme cases, pellagra, a disease characterized
by dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia and mouth sores. Clues to def: Sore red tongue, paranoia, low blood sugar, ringing in ears

Overdose:

Hot
flashes; ulcers; liver disorders ( if over 500 mg/day); high blood sugar and uric acid; cardiac arrythmias.

 Needed if alcoholic
or high sugar diet.

Memory enhancer

Pantothenic Acid

Vitamin B5

Men: 2.5 mg

Women: 2.5 mg

Abundant in animal tissues, whole grain , beef,
cereals and legumes, eggs, mushrooms.

Converts food to molecular forms. Needed to manufacture adrenal hormones and chemicals that regulate
nerve function/ neurotransmitters. Known as anti-stress vitamin

Deficiency:

Unclear in humans. Dec coordination, allergies, tingling
in the hands

Overdose:

See Vitamin B1.

 May be helpful in treating depression and anxiety

Vitamin B6

Pyridoxine

Men: 1.8 mg

Women:
1.5 mg

Animal protein foods, Spinach, Broccoli, Bananas.

Needed for protein/ amino acid metabolism and absorption, carbohydrate metabolism.
Helps form red blood cells. Promotes nerve and brain function.

Deficiency:

Anemia, irritability, patches of itchy, scaling skin; convulsions,
polyneuroathy, oxalate  stone formation, geographic tongue, sideroblastic anemia

Stone formation

Overdose:

Nerve damage. with dosage
as low as 200mg/day for months

 Used in treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome, high doses needed in high protein intake

Vitamin B12

Found
almost exclusively in animal products.

Builds genetic material. Helps form red blood cells with the aid of folic acid, prevents nerve
damage, helps form and protect fatty sheaths of nerves, helps in production of acetylcholine.

Deficiency:

Pernicious anemia/ leucopenia
and thrombocytopenia; nerve damage( peripheral and central). Numbness and tingling, unsteady gait, dec vibratory and position sense.
(Note: Deficiency rare except in strict vegetarians, the elderly or people with malabsorption disorders.), beefy red tongue, anorexia,
paranoia, psychosis and delusions, headache including migraines.  Elevated methylmalonic acid.

Overdose:

See Vitamin B1.

Biotin

60
mcg

Cheese, Egg, Yolk, Cauliflower, Peanut Butter, brewer’s yeast, whole graines, milk, meat, poultry, saltwater fish.

Needed for metabolism
of glucose, carbohydrate, protein and cholesterol, and formation of certain fatty acids. Essential for proper body chemistry.

Deficiency:

Seborrhic
dermatitis in infants. Rare in adults, but can be induced by consuming large amounts of egg whites – anorexia, nausea, vomiting, dry
scaly skin, anemia, muscle pains, high cholesterol, graying of mucous membranes, atrophy of lingual papillae.

Overdose:

See Vitamin
B1

Folic Acid (Folacin)

Men: 180-220 mg

Women: 160-190 mg

Green, leafy vegetables, Orange Juice, organ Meats,
Sprouts, asparagus, whole wheat, salmon, tuna, wheat germ chicken, beef .

Essential for the manufacture of genetic material/DNA/
RNA, as well as protein metabolism and red blood cell formation.

Folate with the aid of B6 and B12 dec homocysteine levels

Deficiency: Impaired
cell division; anemia, lekopenia,  thombocytopenia, glossitis, stomatitis; diarrhea; gastrointestinal upsets, graying of hair,
memory problems and paranoia, restless legs( also in B12 dedf).

Overdose: Convulsions in epileptics when given 14mg iv. May mask pernicious
anemia (see Vitamin B12 deficiency).

Adequate amounts of this nutrient in the first stage of pregnancy may reduce the risks
of neural tube birth defects

Birth control pills inc folate requirement, Alcohol dec folate absorption..

Vitamin C

Ascorbic Acid

Men:
40 mg

Women: 30 mg

Citrus Fruits, Strawberries, Broccoli, Green Peppers, berries, green vegetables

Antioxidant. Helps bind cells together
and strengthens blood vessel walls. Helps maintain healthy gums, and tissues, and aids in production of antI-stress hormones and interferon.
Aids in the absorption of iron.

May reduce LDL and high blood pressure

Deficiency: Muscle weakness, bleeding gums; easy bruising, loose
teeth, anemia, allergies, frequent infections . bleeding gums In extreme cases, scurvy. Higher doses are needed at times of physiological
stress.f

Overdose: Unknown.

The antioxidant properties of this nutrient may be a factor in reducing the risk of certain forms of cancer.
May reduce the effects of the common cold.

Minerals in organic products essential for body functions. Menerals should be taken in aken
in the chelated form( bound to proteins that help in absorption.  Taking minerals with a meal will allow them to become automatically
chelated in the stomach for optimum absorption.. Fiber decreases body’s absorption of minerals, so fiber supplements should be taken
separately from vitamins and minerals.

Calcium

Men: 800 – 1000 mg

Women: 700-800 mg

Milk, Yogurt, Cheese, Sardines, dark green leafy vegetables,
Broccoli, Turnip Greens.

Helps build strong bones and teeth. Promotes muscle and nerve function/ transmission of nerve impulse. Helps
blood to clot. Helps activate enzymes needed to convert food to energy. Helps regulate the heart beat

Deficiency: Rickets in children;
osteomalacia (soft bones) and osteoporosis in adults, muscle cramps, high cholestrol, high blood pressure, convulsions, tetany, tooth
decay..

Overdose: Constipation, Kidney Stones, calcium deposits in body tissues. Hinders absorption of iron and other minerals.

 Antacids
such as tums are not good sources of calcium because they neutralize the stomach acid needed to absorb the calcium.

Phosphorus

Men:
1000 mg

Women: 850 mg (3-6 g)

Chicken Breast, Milk, Lentils, Egg Yolks, Nuts, Cheese, found in most foods, esp processed cooked foods

With
calcium builds bones and teeth. Needed for metabolism, body chemistry, nerve and muscle function, part of cell wall( phospholipids),
helps convert food to energy, needed for calcium transport..Found as ATP in all energy producing reactions, helps maintain acid /base
balance.

Deficiency: (Rare) Weakness cadioespiratoy arrest; bone pain; Anorexia.

Overdose: Hinders body’s absorption of calcium. Diet
high in processed foods can cause excess PO4

Magnesium

Men: 230 – 250 mg

Women: 200 – 210 mg

Spinach, Beef Greens, Broccoli, Tofu,
Popcorn, Cashews, Wheat Bran, found especially in dairy, fish, meat or seafood.

Activates over 300 enzymes needed to release energy
in body/ for ATP metabolism. Needed by cells for genetic material synthesis and bone growth, needed for calcium and potassium uptake.
Used in muscle contraction, and neurtransmission

Deficiency: Nausea, irritability, muscle weakness/ spasm/ tetany; twitching; cramps,
cardiac arrhythmias, chocolate craving, hyperactivity. ticklishness

Overdose: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, low blood pressure,
nervous system disorders.

Warning: Overdose can be fatal to people with kidney disease.

 Needed in alcoholics, if using diuretics,
high vit D intake, or high calcium or cod liver oil intake.

Potassium

Men: 40-80 mmol

Women: 40-80 mmol (3-6 g)

Peanuts, Bananas, Orange
Juice, Green Beans, Mushrooms, Oranges, Broccoli, Sunflower Seeds.

Helps maintain regular fluid balance. Needed for nerve and muscle
function, and regular heart rhythm.

Deficiency: Nausea, anorexia, muscle weakness, irritability. (Occurs most often in persons with
prolonged diarrhea.), constipatiom, ileus, tetany, resp failure

Overdose:

Rare. Cardiac arrhythmia and stress

Iron

(Elemental)

Men:
8-10 mg

Women: 8-13 mg

Liver, lean Meats, Kidney beans, enriched Bread, Raisins.

Note: Oxalic acid in spinach hinders iron absorption.

Essential
for making hemoglobin and myoglobin, the red substance in blood that carries oxygen to body cells. Iron is needed for healthy immune
system and for energy production

Deficiency:

Skin pallor; weakness; fatigue; headaches; anorexia, shortness of breath (all signs of
iron-deficiency anemia), spoon shaped nails and longitudinal  ridges in nails

Ice eating/ pica

Ridges in nails

Overdose:

Toxic buildup
in liver, joints, skin, pancreas and in rare instances the heart.

 Don’t take iron with vit E or calcium. take ferrous gloconate
or ferrous fumerate.  Ferrous sulfate can oxidize vit E. calcium decreases iron absorption. Do not take iron during infections,
bacteria use iron to grow

Zinc

Men: 12 mg

Women: 9 mg

Oysters, Shrimp, Crab, Beef, Turkey, whole Grains, Peanuts, Beans, brewer’s yeast, kelp,

Necessary element in more than 100 enzymes
that are essential to digestion and metabolism, also potent antoxidant, constituent of insulin.  Needed for healthy immune system,
and healing of wounds, needed in enzymes that help repai brain cells

Deficiency:

Slow healing of wounds; loss of taste/ smell; retarded
growth and delayed sexual development in children, infertility, propensity towards diabetes, white spots on nails

Overdose:

Nausea,
vomiting; diarrhea; abdominal pain; gastric bleeding.

 1 to 10 ratio between copper and zinc is needed, do not take zinc and iron
together.

Selenium

0.05-0.2 mg

Adequate amounts are found in Seafood, Kidney, Liver and other meats. Grains and other Seed contain varying
amounts depending on the soil content.

Antioxidant. Interacts with Vitamin E to prevent breakdown of fats and body chemicals.
Helps with vit E to make antibodies, prevents lipid peroxidation, scavenges free radicals.

Deficiency: Unknown in humans.  Deficiency
may be linked to cancer and CAD

Overdose:

Finger nail changes, hair loss, brittle nails.

Copper

2-3 mg

The richest sources of copper
in the diet are Liver and other organ Meats, Seafoods, Nuts, almonds, lentils and Seeds.

Component of several enzymes, including ones
needed to make skin, hair and other pigments. Stimulates iron absorption. Needed to make red blood cells, neurotransmitter formation,
connective tissue/ collagen and nerve fibres, is an anti-inflammatory agent.

Deficiency: 

Rare in adults. Infants may develop a
type of anemia marked by abnormal development of bones, nerve tissue and lungs, microcytic anemia, osteoprosis, , low wbc, depigmentation,
weight loss, mental confusion.

Overdose: 

Liver disease; vomiting; diarrhea, joint and muscle pains, copper excess can cause destruction
of eye tissue, and deposition of copper in brain, kidney and liver.

 Copper levels are reduced if large doses of zinc and vitamin
C are taken, and high copper levels dec zinc and vit C levels. High consumption of fructose can worsen copper deficiency

Manganese

2-5
mg

Tea, whole Grains and Cereal products are the richest dietary sources. Adequate amounts are found in Fruits and, seaweeds, Vegetables,
nuts and seeds, .

Needed for normal tendon and bone structure, growth. Component of some enzymes important in carbohydrate and lipid
metabolism, gluconeogenesis.

Deficiency uncertain but may cause nausea, decreased cholesterol, atheletic injuries and changes in hair
color.

manganese toxicity: neuropsychiatric problems in minors inhaling manganese oxide.

 

Molybdenum

0.15-0.3 mg

The
concentration in food varies depending on the environment in which the food was grown. Milk, Beans, Breads and Cereals contribute
the highest amounts, beef liver, leafy vegetables.

Component of enzymes needed in metabolism. Helps regulate iron storage.
Cofactor in oxidase enzymes.

Deficiency: Unknown in humans. Low intake associated with mouth and gum disease.

Overdose:

Gout-like
joint pain.

 

 

People on high refined carbohydrate diets  and processed food can be deficient

 

© 2012, All Rights Reserved, EMedvisits.com